Foliar feeding

Foliar top feeding is spraying with liquid fertilizer on the plant leaves.

The main way of plants feeding is through the roots, by applying fertilizers to the soil substrate.

Foliar top feeding is considered as a temporary or special procedure that is performed in addition to the main feeding in the following situations:

  • on soils with high alkaline (acidic) reaction. In this case, the microelements necessary for the plants are not available to it;
  • during growing of the plant, visual symptoms of deficiencies of certain micronutrients, as well as phosphorus and potassium, appeared;
  • before flowering of the plants;
  • when due to the pH of the soil, the macroelements (phosphorus, potassium) are bound and not accessible to the plants root system;
  • when the root system of the plant has problems with the absorption of nutrients from the soil.

Problems arise in the following cases:

  • high soil temperature;
  • excess moisture of soil substratum;
  • poor aeration of the soil;
  • damage to the roots of the plant by nematodes or during transplantation.

The leaves of the plant can be thought of as biochemical laboratory, where the complex chemical processes of photosynthesis produce compounds necessary for plant growth. With foliar top feedingfertilizer plants are absorbed directly "in place" where they will be used. At the same time, they act much faster and more efficiently than with root top feeding. The effectiveness of nutrient absorption is 100 - 900% higher in case of foliar way of feeding.

Plants use about 50 mineral elements. Most of them are required in very small quantities, but the absence of any element will have a huge negative impact on the growing of the plants.

Many microfertilizers because of the acidity of the soil can not be assimilated by the roots of the plants.

Water-soluble macronutrients:

  • nitrogen up to 50% is washed out;
  • phosphorus up to 80% is not digested, despite the fact that with foliar top feeding 80% of phosphorus is absorbed.

Iron, when feeding through the root, is inaccessible to the plant, especially at low temperatures. The presence of pests and diseases in the soil, limits the root feeding.

With foliar top feeding passive penetration of nutrients into the plant occurs.

Passive penetration mainly occurs through: the cuticle of the leaf, the stomata of the leaves, and also through the epidermis. Cuticular throughput limits the amount of fertilizer that a leaf can absorb with foliar top feeding. The rate of diffusion of elements through membranes is proportional to the degree of concentration of elements (micro or macrofertilizers used for foliar top feeding). Therefore, the higher the concentration of fertilizer in the solution used for foliar top feeding, the greater its penetration into the plant. There is an upper limit to the concentration of fertilizer in the solution; If it is exceeded, the leaves of the treated plant will be damaged (chlorosis, necrosis).

When spraying the leaves of the plant, it is necessary to spray the underside of the leaves as well. It has a porous structure and better absorbs fertilizer.

Less than the leaves absorbing capacity is the bark of plants.

The best time for foliar way of feeding is 7:00 - 10:00 in the morning, and after 17:00 before sunset. These time periods are favorable for the following reasons:

  • open stomata on the underside of the leaves;
  • for successful foliar feeding, the ambient temperature should be equal to 22 ° C (as the temperature rises, the penetration of nutrients into the plant decreases, at temperatures above 27 ° C, the penetration of nutrients into the plant ceases);
  • not too bright sun. The leaves of plants with bright sun will dry quicker. Given that fertilizers for foliar feeding are available to the plant only in the liquid state - the plant will have the opportunity to absorb fertilizer longer.

Cloudy weather is also good for foliar feeding, but if it rains, fertilizers will be washed off the leaves of the plant.

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