Precise Farming: Key Technologies and Concepts

Manual labor or machines?

What technologies of exact farming are available today, and at what stages of agricultural work they can be used, we will consider in this article.

High-precision positioning systems (GPS, GLONASS) are the basis for the precise farming, since they provide the possibility of determining the location of the technics during the processing of the earth. The maximum accuracy with which coordinates can be determined today is 2 cm.

Automated steering systems make it possible to simplify a number of tasks related to the management of agricultural machinery. Their use allows you to unload the driver from performing monotonous actions and reduces the impact of the human factor. Are divided into:

  • Auxiliary steering systems. They tell the driver where to go at the moment, taking into account the work of positioning systems (GPS), but the driver should drive by himself (as example, the parallel driving devices).
  • Automated steering systems that fully control the steering wheel, which allows the driver to take his hands off the steering wheel directly during the processing of the soil. Attention can be focused on the work of other devices - a spraying computer, fluid flow sensors, etc. (a parallel driving device complete with an auto-steering system).
  • Intelligent guidance systems have in their arsenal various management templates. Can be used with two previous systems.

Geomapping – is used to create maps showing the type of soil, the content of nutrients in it, the prevalence of weeds or insects.

Sensors and remote sensing - collect data on the state of soil and agricultural crops in a non-contact way. This equipment can be installed on a variety of equipment: tractors, sprayers, drones.

Electronic systems for the integration of individual components of equipment on machinery or the machinery itself with a central office.

Variable rate technology of fertilizers appliyng – the ability of the technician to adapt the parameters of work in accordance with the current requirements of the land relief, sowing density or other factors.

Technologies of precise farming today

The above technologies can give the following improvements in the work of the agrarian:

  1. «Precise» tillage.
  2. «Precise» seeding technologies.
  3. «Precise» approach to fertilization and irrigation.
  4. Harvesting with the use of technology of precision farming.
  5. Precise technologies in animal husbandry.

«Precision» tillage

Precision agriculture in the process of cultivation of land

To reduce fuel consumption, the technics must pass through the field so that there are no skip zones or re-treatment. In addition, it is necessary to plan in advance the starting point for processing each field, taking into account its shape and location features.The combined use of high-precision positioning systems and automated steering systems simplify the driver's work and allow the processing results to be stored in electronic databases (for example, «Agrosystem»).

«Precise» seeding technologies

Precision Farming Technology in Planting

One of the most important moments in agriculture - you can not «sow again» if the first time an error was made.

Grains should not be planted too deeply, otherwise growth will be slowed or not possible. If the seeds are close to the surface, they will be threatened by the drying of the surface layers of soil and poultry.

If the seeds are planted too close to each other, then the plants will compete for nutrients in the soil and the sun. If the distance is more than what the given culture needs, then part of the valuable soil will remain unused.

It is impossible to control as many parameters manually, therefore the seeders for such work are used. To avoid re-seeding on the already processed areas and gaps between rows of processing, technologies for precise location determination are needed. Automated steering systems help the driver to keep the seed drill in the right direction through the entire length of the field.

To accelerate the growing of the plants, starting fertilizers must be used. The company «Comprehensive AgroService» performs modernization of seeders for ability of applicating of the liquid fertilizers.

The re-equipped seeder can, during the sowing process, introduce liquid fertilizers into the soil next to the place where the grains falls. In this case, the culture receives an additional portion of nutrients in the soil near the roots and can effectively compete with the weeds already at the initial stage of growth.

In case of using the most advanced technologies, the current seeding frequency or the dose of starting fertilizer application varies depending on the cartogram of nutrient content at a given point in the field.

Precise application of fertilizers

The introduction of fertilizers based on the cartogram of the substance content in this fieldIn the process of growth, plants need fertilizers, plant protection products and irrigation. Only with the rational use of all these components can you expect a good harvest.

The modern approach to fertilizer application includes the work of various sensors: assessment of the state of the green mass of plants, control of wind direction, soil moisture, nutrient content in the soil. After compiling a cartogram that includes the amount of nutrients in the soil and the current state of the plants (the prevalence of insect pests), you can begin processing the area.

Variable-rate technology will maximize the rational processing of the territory - the dose of introduction in this part of the field will be determined by a number of factors. Automated steering systems will help to process the soil without gaps and re-treatment points.

Self-propelled sprayer «Vodoley» can be used to apply liquid fertilizers directly on the shoots of winter crops. The plants will not suffer (with a stem height of up to 50 cm) thanks to ultra-low pressure tires.

When watering, it is necessary to evaluate the degree of moistening of each part of the field and make appropriate corrections.

Precise technologies for harvesting

Precise technologies for harvesting

The harvesting process is automated - even a «simple» combine harvester combines 3 separate operations into one process: harvesting, grinding and breeze. Depending on the model, the excess can be crushed and scattered around the field or immediately folded up by presses into molds that are convenient for further processing. Today the market has harvesters for harvesting grain, some vegetables, strawberries, cotton.

The market already has machines capable of driving without a driver next to the combine for the pouring of the grain in them. The additional equipment installed in the combine allows to estimate the yield of each hectare of the treated area. Data can be stored, for example, in the «Agrosystem» to assess the quality of the soil and the correctness of the selection of fertilizer doses in this area.

Precise technologies in animal husbandry

Precise technologies in animal husbandry - the robot pours feed to cows

A whole set of technologies makes it easier to work cattle breeders. Systems like the «smart house», simplify the maintenance of the microclimate on the farm, letting out people for other work. In this article the topics of livestock and modern technologies were considered in more detail.

Permanent monitoring of animal condition, automation of feeding, milking. The presence of collars with sensors allows you to take into account the path traveled to animals every day. Next, you can assess the health of the animal and adjust the diet.

Usually, the very first device that appears is a computer for spraying or a system of parallel driving. Then a logical question arises, and what to do next, so that your farm becomes even more «precise»? We suggest not to hurry and study the article «4 Steps to Implement Precise Farming on Your Farm».

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