Consider the features of growth, nutrition and fertilizing a crop such as winter rye.
Among other cereals favorably less demanding on soil fertility and weather conditions. On soils, where there is not enough nutrients for wheat, rye can show a good harvest. The optimum pH of the soil is 5-6, acidification negatively affects the yield of rye. Therefore, when grown on acidic sod-podzolic soils, it is imperative to alkalize the soil.
The rye root system is better developed than that of winter wheat. In autumn, from the moment of sowing to the beginning of the winter pause, rye needs 45 days of vegetation. The stem and spike are laid in the autumn, during the tillering stage. Further spike formation occurs in spring. Thus, the most crucial periods of fertilization for rye:
In the autumn the plant needs more phosphorus and potassium. Phosphorus accelerates the development of the root system, potassium contributes to the tillering process. With the proper amount of these two elements, winter rye manages to accumulate enough sugars, which allows it to safely winter and not suffer from frost.
The situation with nitrogen is somewhat different. Before sowing, it is necessary to introduce nitrogen in a dose of 20-30 kg/ha if:
Nitrogen should not be applied to rich soils and after legumes, as this may impair winter rye winter hardiness.
Before the tillering phase is completed, winter rye will absorb about a third of nitrogen and 25% of phosphorus with potassium from the total consumption over the entire growth period. Nitrogen and potassium are absorbed before flowering, phosphorus - before the beginning of the phase of wax ripeness. The maximum rates of nutrient absorption (about 70%) are in the tillering and culm growth.
The expected rates of nutrient use by rye from the soil are similar to those of winter wheat and are:
Rye is favorably distinguished by a powerful root system that penetrates deep into the soil. It assimilates nutrients better than other cereals, even if they are found in hardly soluble compounds, for example, phosphorus from phosphate. Its shortage during growth has a dramatic negative effect on rye. With a slight drawback, you can see how the leaves curl, appear purple spots. With a more significant phosphorus deficiency, rye sprouts may die.
With a lack of potassium, rye leaves are covered with yellow spots, resistance to frost is reduced. The ability of a plant to consume other nutrients is reduced. The tillering energy is reduced, the stems are formed with a reduced resistance to mechanical stress, the spikelets are drooping, the process of grain ripening is longer. Susceptibility to diseases increases.
It is especially important to use potash fertilizers on sandy soils, where they are applied both in autumn and spring. Together with potassium, it is recommended to deposit 20 kg/ha of magnesium and sulfur in such fields. In dry regions it is especially important to use trace elements: iron, copper, manganese, boron, etc.
On peat, sod-podzolic and podzolized soils, you must additionally use boric fertilizers, copper. In the presence in the soil of a significant amount of mobile phosphorus compounds, it is desirable to use zinc.
For a more rational use of fertilizers, it is better to use such a crop rotation scheme. When organic fertilizers are applied, tilled crops are sown, and rye is sown after them, using the aftereffect of previously introduced substances. This is facilitated by a powerful root system. If, on this field, grain crops have been grown for several years in a row and rye is planned to be sown, then fertilizer will be required directly for this crop.
The introduction of manure in a dose of 20-30 t/ha makes it possible to expect an increase in yield:
Applying green fertilizers (green manure), plowed along with the introduction of phosphate and potash fertilizers, at a dose of 50-60 kg/ha, you can get the effect similar to the introduction of manure on sandy soils of light grain size.
As already mentioned, nitrogen must be applicated in the spring, after the renewal of the growing season. The first application - 30 kg/ha and the second, in the phase of the tube growing - 60 kg/ha. The rye wakes up quite early, when the soil is still cold and the possibilities of the root system are limited. Therefore, feeding rye (including foliar) in the spring with nitrogen is very important.
Self-propelled sprayer «Vodoley» on tires of ultra-low pressure can move across the field with winter crops in the tillering stage without damaging them. UAN-32 fertilizer can be applied directly to the leaves and enter the plant without the root system. Even if the soil is heavily soaked, the «Vodoley» sprayer will perform the treatment in full. The later the sowing of rye is made, the greater the dose of the first spring feeding should be, up to 80 kg/ha.
Some sources propose a formula for calculating the dose of nitrogen: the need for nitrogen (kg/ha) = expected yield (t/ha) * 20 - nitrogen of mineralized compounds. Fertilizers with such a calculation is recommended in two rounds. The first - 60% of the total dose of nitrogen and 25 kg/ha of sulfur immediately in the spring. The second is the remaining 40% nitrogen at the beginning of the exit phase. Be sure to use this system plant growth inhibitor.
The quality of the flour that comes out of rye depends on the starch content, protein and moisture. The main difference from wheat - an increase in the amount of protein in rye grain does not lead to an increase in the volume of bread. Moreover, when the protein content exceeds more than 11%, the activity of the alpha-amylase enzyme, which breaks down starch in the grain, increases undesirably. When the grain gets wet, the activity of this enzyme leads to a decrease in the quality of bread obtained from rye.
Thus, when selecting nitrogen fertilizers for winter rye, it is important to select a dose at which the protein content in the grain does not exceed 11.5%, otherwise the activity of alpha-amylase will increase.