Growing beets in Ukraine, the choice of doses of fertilizers

Sugar beet is very demanding on the quality of the soil and grows poorly at acidic pH values. Better light and medium loam soils with a pH of 6.2-7.5. If the acidity is below 6.5 units, then you need to make liming of the soil or introduce beet defecation. To reduce the number of weeds defecate contribute under the culture of the predecessor.

The process of liming can lead to chemical immobilization of various microelements, especially boron, which not only reduces the yield of sugar beet, but also can provoke the development of rot.

On soils of light particle size, the permissible pH values ​​are 5.6 - 5.8, but an increase in buffering properties is required, by the introduction of organic and phosphate fertilizers.

Beets do not grow well in areas where the depth of groundwater is less than 60 cm. Excessive moisture inhibits the growth of root crops and is the cause of their decay.

For the formation of 1 ton of harvest, beets takes from the soil:

  • Nitrogen: 4-5 kg;
  • Phosphorus: 1,5-2 kg;
  • Potassium: 5-9 kg;
  • Calcium: 1,5 kg;
  • Magnesium: 1,3 kg;
  • Sodium: 0,9 kg.

The above values ​​may vary depending on the dose of fertilizer, soil condition, weather conditions. In general, beetroot is Potassiumfil, therefore, on the soils with low of this element, the harvest strongly depends on the addition of potassium. On soils with a high content of sodium, the need for potassium is less, since the plant actively assimilates sodium, which can also be applied as fertilizer.

As an organic fertilizer you can use sugar beet tops - 30-50 t / ha, which is equivalent to the use of 30 t / ha of manure.

Three periods of nutrient absorption

  1. The first 45 days of growth, before the formation of 10 leaves, the rate of absorption is low.
  2. The next 80 days there is an active absorption of nutrients.
  3. A gradual decrease in the intensity of all metabolic processes - last 30-45 days.

The potential of the entire crop is very dependent on the availability of essential nutrients at the initial stage of growth (4-6 pairs of leaves) when the laying of the secondary cambium rings occurs. An increase in the mass of the root is possible due to the collection of nutrients by the cells of the parenchyma, which are located between the rings of the conductive cells. With a deficit of moisture or nutrients, the number and size of these rings are reduced, which can not be compensated by fertilizer applicating later. To make the number of cambial rings as high as possible, at the initial stage, the beets must get enough nitrogen.

At the stage of sugar accumulation it is important to choose the right balance of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. An excess of nitrogen fertilizers can lead to a decrease in the sugar content in root vegetables.

The value of sugar beet is in the amount of sugar produced, and not just the mass of root crops

It is important to understand that the task of the agrarian is not just to grow as much of the root crops as possible. The productivity of sugar beet is determined by the amount of sugar that was obtained from it. If plants accumulate a lot of sodium and potassium salts, the sugar output can be reduced.

Fertilization at the initial stage of growth (20 days after emergence) is best done by a tape method. A sufficient amount of nutrients at this stage not only improves growth, but also increases resistance to various diseases, adverse weather conditions. Usually, superphosphate (up to 30 kg / ha) or combined fertilizers are applied to the soil.

Beet sprouts can slow the growth due toe the occurrence of excess mineral fertilizers, especially with a lack of moisture. Therefore, it is important to make small doses that will have minimal impact on the total concentration of the soil solution.

The general algorithm for the choice of fertilizer for beets is as follows:

  • After the emergence of seedlings, the plant needs all three elements at once (N, P, K);
  • During the active development of the leaf apparatus, a sufficient amount of nitrogen is needed;
  • After the formation of root crops begins, nitrogen should be given less, the need for phosphorus and potassium increases.

Signs of deficiency in sugar beet:

  • Nitrogen – cotyledons turn brown, young leaves turn light green, older ones die off.
  • Phosphorus – sprout growth slowed down, plant tissue is yellowish, vein brownish.
  • Potassium – wrinkles, brown spots, a yellow-brown border around the edge appear on the formed plants.
  • Calcium – in the second half of the growing season, the older leaves shrivel, on their upper parts there are signs of burns, in the center - chlorosis and necrosis.
  • Magnesium – in a phase of 2-3 pairs of leaves, the leaves curl.
  • Boron – dying of growth points and an increased susceptibility of the root.

Manure application in sugar beet growing

Manure can be applied both under the beet itself and under its predecessor in the crop rotation. It is better to use half-dung manure, in an average dose of 20-40 t / ha. It is not recommended to use fresh, as it causes branching and violation of the shape of root crops, which reduces the yield. In addition, fresh manure affects the absorption of nitrogen by beets and enhances the growth of weeds, so it is better to use it only for predecessors on the crop rotation cycle.

According to the impact on the increase in yield, the introduction of semi-extinct manure at a dose of 20 t / ha is similar to the introduction of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in doses of 60 kg / ha. It is recommended to add nitrogen fertilizers to manure on gray forest soils and black soil, because nitrogen from manure is poorly absorbed.

To improve the absorption of nutrients by the beet, the manure and mineral fertilizers are introduced in the fall under deep plowing. In this case, they are in the zone of guaranteed moisture and are well absorbed by the root system, which, for beets, penetrates deeper by 2.5 m and 1 m wide from the place of growth.

Doses of mineral fertilizers for sugar beet

The most common basic minerals are used in such doses:

  • Nitrogen: 120 kg/ha;
  • Phosphorus: 90-120 kg/ha;
  • Potassium: 90-120 kg/ha.

The above doses usually give the maximum payback as a result of an increase in the yield of root crops. Often used sodium nitrate, which supplies the beets with two elements at once - sodium and nitrogen. If ammonia or anhydrous ammonia is used as a source of nitrogen, it should be added in the autumn, at time of the field tillering, when the soil temperature has dropped below 10°. In this case, the nitrogen is fixed in the form of ammonium and is not subjected to nitrification due to the low activity of soil bacteria.

At the stage of growth of green mass, urea is used as a source of nitrogen, which can be applied to the leaves (foliar top dressing). Cloud weather is best suited for this, when the temperature does not exceed 20° and the soil is moistened. Urea can be used in conjunction with pesticides. The usual concentration is 6% solution. To reduce the risk of burns, you can add 5% solution of magnesium sulfate. Young leaves usually tolerate such treatment better; if the temperature is low and there is no sun, then the concentration can be increased to 10%.

Lack of potassium negatively affects the yield, it can be expected on soils of light grain size. It is not recommended to deposit more than 300 kg / ha of K2O, as this may lead to a decrease in the sugar production from this crop. When using high doses of potash fertilizers, it is important that the plant has enough of the remaining elements - phosphorus and nitrogen.

Calcium and magnesium in sugar beet cultivation

The level of magnesium in the soil insufficient for beets is 50 mg / kg and less. In this case, you need to make up to 70 kg / ha of MgO. With a lack of calcium, the root system weakens, leaves are stained with stripes, whiten between the veins. For the prevention of calcium deficiency, calcium nitrate is used, calcium chelate is used for foliar application.

Unlike pesticides, the introduction of trace elements increases the immunity of plants and their resistance to the effects of adverse environmental factors.

Zinc preparations increase resistance to the rot.

Boron-containing drugs - to root rot core, fomoz and powdery mildew.

Both of the above, magnesium and copper, increase the resistance to powdery mildew. The highest efficiency of trace elements is observed with an adequate number of macroelements (N, P, K).

To reduce the cost of microelements, it is necessary to embed the non-commodity part of the crop in the soil. Thus, 40% of copper, 15% of manganese and 27% of zinc can be returned to the soil. At the same time, it should be remembered that eliminating the toxic effects of an excess of trace elements is more difficult than their deficiency, therefore, it is not worth applicating «with a reserve».

Boron in the cultivation of sugar beet

Of all the trace elements, the effect on the yield and sugar content of fruits first need to select boron. Growth periods of 4-6 and 8-10 leaves are critical for this mineral. With its lack of leaves curl, blacken and rot. There may be problems with root vegetables: dying off of the upper part, heart rot, hollowness. Boron is responsible for the use of calcium by plants, so it is very important to protect against rot. Boron can be applied 2-3 times using foliar way in the event that there is less than 0.2mg/kg of mobile boron compounds in the soil. With a pronounced lack of boron, it is introduced in a dose of 2kg/ha in the spring along with the UAN.

The value of manganese in the cultivation of sugar beet

A critical period in the manganese diet is the phase of 8-12 leaves. This mineral increases not only the weight of the crop of root vegetables, but also the sugar content in them. We can expect a lack of manganese on soils with a neutral and alkaline reaction. Its absorption is hindered by low air humidity, soil, cloudy weather and high doses of mineral fertilizers.

Signs of manganese deficiency:

  • Plants with dwarfism;
  • The appearance on the leaves of yellow spots and holes;
  • Twisting the edges of the leaves up.

It is recommended to conduct foliar nutrition with manganese fertilizers in the phase of 4-8 leaves, for which we use chelate solutions or manganese sulfate at a dose of 300 l / ha with 0.1% dilution.

Copper when growing beets

The effect of copper on the growth and yield of sugar beet:

  • Increases resistance to fungal and bacterial infections;
  • Increases drought resistance and tolerance to high temperatures;
  • Improves nitrogen absorption.

Often it is required to use copper fertilizers on sod-podzolic and gray forest soils. You can expect a lack of copper after:

  • Using high doses of the mineral fertilizers;
  • Soil liming;
  • At high temperature.

Copper is introduced in the form of chelates or sulphates, in the same tank with the UAN.

Zinc when growing sugar beets

Zinc, like copper, increases resistance to drought, heat, various pathogens. Zinc deficiency can be expected after:

  • Using high doses of the mineral fertilizers;
  • Soil liming;
  • Low temperature.

It is recommended to conduct foliar feeding with 0.1% of zinc sulfate or its chelates before closing the leaves between the rows.

Separately, there are sugar beet crops sown in late spring and found themselves in low temperatures, drought or herbicidal stress. Even with a sufficient amount of nutrients in the soil, such crops need foliar nutrition with microelements that can be applied together with herbicides in the 4-6 leaf phase. The following feeding is recommended in 1-1.5 months.

In case of severe drought and on highly calcareous soils, a third fertilizing with boron (200-300 g / ha) is carried out a month before harvesting.

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