Spring grain crops - growth, nutrition, choice of fertilizers

The vegetation period of spring crops is shorter than that of winter crops:

  • For barley: 70-110 days;
  • For oats: 100-120;
  • For spring wheat: 80-115.

Nutrient requirements are similar to those for winter crops. Spring crops have a weaker root system than winter crops and less pronounced tillering.

Early nitrogen starvation reduces spring yields

The period from the beginning of tillering to the tube is critical for the rate of nitrogen consumption - 40% of the total nitrogen that will be used for the life of the plant is absorbed during this period of time.

It is important that in the first 10-30 days after the emergence of seedlings in the soil there was a sufficient amount of nitrogen, otherwise the synthesis and accumulation of carbohydrates in plants will be disturbed.

Early nitrogen starvation is critical for future harvest, as it causes an underdevelopment of the generative organs and, as a result, a decrease in yield. It should be understood that even the introduction of the necessary dose of fertilizer after this stage does not eliminate the negative effects of early nitrogen starvation.

Phosphorus is responsible for root development.

The trace element phosphorus contributes to the development of the root system in spring crops. As a result, a larger spikelets and an early harvest can be expected. By analogy with nitrogen, it is very important that it is sufficient at the stage of germination of crops. It is noticed that the introduction of phosphorus during planting at a dose of 20 kg/ha increases the yield. If plants receive enough of this trace element, the uptake of nitrogen and potassium improves, which is vital for a good harvest.

Potassium is also very important at the initial stage of spring growth

Most spring potassium is also absorbed in the early stages of growth. If the plant did not have enough potassium, then in the phase of three leaves you can see that the leaves have become lighter. About a week later, such a sign disappears and it is replaced by a less obvious, but more destructive one - the plants lose their growth rate. If there was a severe deficiency of potassium, then the leaves die off.

Millet: growth and development

Millet stands out well with a well-developed root system with a powerful suction ability. Efficiently uses water and soil nutrients. Needs a neutral reaction (pH 6.5 - 7.5). In the early stages of growth, phosphorus is a critical trace element that stimulates the development of the root system.

The peak in nutrient consumption occurs in the tillering and flowering phases, when the plant absorbs about 70% of all nitrogen, 60% of phosphorus and 45% of potassium. The rest is absorbed in the process of formation and ripening of grain. At these stages phosphorus is very important, it is this element that is responsible for the grain size and grain fat content.

Oats - unpretentious and productive

Oats are even more unpretentious, even when compared with millet. It can grow even on relatively acidic soil, but it feels even better at neutral pH values. Oats well absorb nutrients from the soil, can grow on the field after wheat, using the residual effect of fertilizers. It is characterized by a long period of assimilation of nutrients - prior to flowering, it absorbs 60% of nitrogen and phosphorus, as well as 45% of potassium from the total amount that will be taken out of the soil. The critical period in terms of nitrogen deficiency is tillering, when the growth cone differentiates, the grains are laid and the future growth of the plant is determined.

To form 1 ton of grain and the concomitant amount of straw, oats from the soil take

  • Nitrogen: 33 kg;
  • Phosphorus: 14 kg;
  • Potassium: 29 kg.

The use of mineral fertilizers affects not only the amount of oats produced, but also its quality - with properly selected doses, the protein content in the grains increases and the amount of fiber decreases.

Optimum doses of nitrogen fertilizers for spring crops (kg/ha):

  • After perennial herbs: 30-40;
  • After row crops: 60;
  • After grain, cabbage and non-legume predecessors: 90;
  • The maximum allowable dose of nitrogen is 120 kg/ha of active ingredient.

Barley for the brewing industry

When it comes to brewing barley varieties, the dose of nitrogen is halved, while more phosphorus and potassium must be added than nitrogen. The process of applying nitrogen fertilizer should be as uniform as possible over the entire treatment area. In places with the outflow rate exceeding, there may be impaired grain development with deterioration in size, protein content, uneven grain size, impaired extractability, which reduces the brewing quality of raw materials.

Also, when growing barley for the brewing industry, do not exceed the dose of potash fertilizers. The requirements for such barley are specific: a reduced protein content (9-12%) and an increased amount of starch (at least 63%). For such a crop, 60 kg/ha of nitrogen is applied once before sowing and do not feed at all at all stages of growth, otherwise the protein content in the grain will increase. Even if it became necessary to feed nitrogen, it should be done before the beginning of the 1-2 leaf phase.

Barley for feeding purposes

Barley varieties grown for forage and food purposes should receive more nitrogen with phosphorus, but less potassium.

In the event of the discovery of symptoms of nitrogen deficiency, it is possible to conduct an extraordinary feeding, for which ammonium nitrate, urea, ammonium sulfate, and UAN are usually used. Urea-ammonia nitrate can be used at a dilution of 1:2-3. Self-propelled sprayer «Vodoley» is suitable for foliar application of UAN, liquid fertilizers. Thanks to low-pressure tires, it does not damage wheat in the tillering phase with a height of stalk up to 50 cm.

In order to save phosphate and potash fertilizers, in the spring you can use their local tape application to a depth of 12-16 cm. In this case, the working fluid consumption is reduced to 30%. As an option, you can make fertilizer in rows when sowing.

What trace elements to use when growing spring crops?

The first should be noted copper, zinc and manganese. After using lime on the field it is good to add boron, at acidic pH values ​​- molybdenum. Foliar fertilization with these compounds is carried out at the beginning of the tube out phase, together with the addition of pesticides or nitrogen.

It is possible to process barley seeds with microelements, so as not to add them later. This is done when there is less than (mg/kg) in the soil:

  • Boron – 0,3;
  • Manganese – 30;
  • Zinc – 0,7;

The use of trace elements in general improves plant nutrition and protein content in the grain. In this case, you should always ensure that the plant has enough of all the substances, since the lack of even one can level the fact of a sufficient number of others and the harvest will be not as big as it was expected.

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