Seed treatment to protect the crop

The main purpose of seed dressing is to prevent possible future crop losses. For what purpose, pesticides are applied to the seed, which will protect in the early stages from certain pathogens.

Treatment is qualitative where the rate of treatment is not exceeded by more than 10%, and the uniformity of processing of all seeds is at least 10%.

Equipment that transports seeds should not damage them. If the treatment process includes a thermal component, it should not be reflected in the result on seed germination.

Today, automated plants are used for seed dressing, in which the process of feeding the working solution and seeds is controlled by electronics.

Classification of seed treatment machines

  • By the nature of the process: cyclical and continuous;
  • On the movement of seeds during processing: with an organized and unorganized flow of seeds;
  • According to the method of application: with mixing devices and direct application.

Treaters with mixing devices are divided into screw and drum. Direct application method treaters are divided on the chamber and rod. Technologically, all actions performed during processing are divided into three stages:

  • Organization of dosed receipt of seeds or tubers to the treatment area;
  • Actually, seed (tubers) treatment;
  • Unloading of already processed planting material from the processing area.

The working parts of the seed treaters

Usually, the working parts of treaters include:

  • Devices for loading seeds or tubers (there are screw type and scrapers);
  • Seed dispensers (can be reel, disc and other designs);
  • Working bodies (drums, augers, chambers with a vertical flow of seeds);
  • Devices for unloading treated seeds;
  • Equipment for refueling chemicals and water in the treater;
  • Mixers that prepare the working solution (mechanical, hydraulic);
  • Pumps for supplying working fluid;
  • Batchers of working solution;
  • Sprayers (centrifugal, rotary).

The production process is as follows. Seeds enter the loading device, after which the screw mechanism fed them into the treatment area. Next, planting material is fed into the processing bunker. There are different options for processing grains. How exactly it will occur depends on the structural features of this particular mechanizm. Upon completion of processing, seeds are removed from the treatment area and poured out into the vehicle or storage bags.

The steel auger must be protected by a polyethylene coating

To preserve germination, seeds should not be damaged by a screw. Studies conducted in this direction showed that the largest number of seeds remain viable when the steel auger is protected by a polyethylene coating. A comparison of the germination of seeds that have passed through a steel auger, coated steel and not treated at all has shown that pure steel gives a reduction in germination of 5-7%. While the polyethylene coating practically did not damage the seed.

Another important processing parameter is the auger rotation speed - it should not exceed 370 rpm.

General recommendations for reducing the number of damaged seeds:

  • The rotational speed of the screws does not exceed 370 rpm, and they must be continuously loaded with seeds;
  • The receiving part of the conveyor or auger should be equipped with a rubber or plastic gasket to cushion the impact of seeds during the loading;
  • Care must be taken that the fall height of the seeds is less than 3 m;
  • It is necessary to update all components of the treater in a timely manner, since worn-out components injure the seeds more than new do.
  • It is necessary to carefully move bags with already processed seeds, as experience shows, if throwing bags of seeds onto a hard surface, losses of 10% germination are possible.

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