The purpose of the activities that are carried out within the framework of plant quarantine is to prevent new types of pests, weeds and diseases from entering the country. And also, the identification and destruction of pests and pathogens already penetrated into the territory of Ukraine.
Separate the external and internal quarantine of plants. All goods of quarantine value imported into Ukraine must be inspected by specialists. If pests are detected, the cargo is disinfected or destroyed.
A quarantine organism is a type of weeds, diseases or pests that are absent or scarce in the country. But due to the importation or self-distribution, it can get inside, which will cause economic losses.
Due to the expansion of trade, scientific, technical and cultural ties between countries, as well as the development of tourism, the possibilities for quarantine organisms to spread are increasing.
Initially, quarantine was the isolation of ships on a remote raid for a period of 40 days. This rule was legislated in Italy in 1734. Long-term isolation of the ship on a remote raid should protect against the importation of plague from eastern countries.
In the field of forestry and agriculture, the term «quarantine» has been used since 1851, when the plant quarantine convention was adopted in Paris. These activities regulated the importation and distribution of dangerous foreign flora and fauna. The situation with the import of phylloxera from America, which destroyed large areas of vineyards in southern Europe, has become a powerful incentive for the development of legislation.
To prevent the spread of phylloxera in Russia in 1873 a decree was passed banning the importation of vines and their parts. The next major step was taken in Switzerland in 1877 at a meeting of representatives of a number of countries.
In 1951, a draft International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) was prepared. This convention has been adopted by more than 50 countries. Since 1983, according to the decision of the FAO international organization, a new term has appeared - the quarantine organism. This term refers to all quarantine weeds, pests and diseases.
n 1992, the Ministry of the Agroindustrial Complex in Ukraine approved «List of pests, plant diseases and weeds that are quarantined in Ukraine». On June 30, 193, the Verkhovna Rada adopted the Law of Ukraine «On Quarantine of Plants». On October 20, 1993, the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine approved the Statute of the State Plant Quarantine Service.
Since 1994, Ukraine has been a member of the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. In 2006 she joined the FAO Plant Protection Convention.
The tasks of the quarantine service of Ukraine today are defined as follows: